Conserve natural enemies through reduction of broad-spectrum insecticides against other pests as the disruption of natural enemies can flare mite outbreaks. Insect resistant maize: recent advances and utilization. maize, peanuts, chickpea, lucerne) are grown in sequence. Detailed information about the use of cookies on this website and how you can manage or withdraw your consent at any time can be found in our Although chemical control may be cost effective, there are currently no threshold levels for GVB in maize. Leaf damage can indicate pest presence. Larvae from eggs laid on silks or husks may cause significant damage. Infestations are usually patchy. There are over 850 species of tick. Soil-dwelling insect pests can seriously reduce plant establishment, plant populations, plant growth, and subsequent yield potential, and should be monitored for prior to plating. Inspect emerging seedlings twice per week. Chaisaeng, P., Chongrattanameteekul, W., Visarathanonth, P. and Vajarasathiara, B. Species found in Queensland include: Australian plague locusts, Migratory locusts, and Spur-throated locusts. Adults and nymphs feed by piercing and sucking on developing cobs, and may severely deform cobs. cultivated paddocks). The incidence of damage is generally too low to warrant control. Grain Weevil. It varies from a dull red-brown to black, and is usually marked on the back with four light red to yellow spots. Adults may damage summer seedlings by chewing at or above ground level and replanting may be required. Wireworms generally favour moist areas. Predators of aphids include ladybird larvae, damsel bugs, bigeyed bugs, larvae of green lacewings and larvae of hoverflies. Damage is worse when crop growth is retarded by dry, wet or cool conditions. Pests can occur at one or more growth stages (Insects that can potentially be a major pest are indicated in bold): Helicoverpa armigera is major, widespread, regular pest. The Maize weevil will breed on maize in the field, but the Rice weevil only breeds in stored grain. From a hectare of land, if all agronomic practices are done judiciously, a farmer should get at least 6tons of maize after harvesting. Infestations can start in the field, but most damage occurs in storage. Also known as the Greater Rice Weevil. Older plants can outgrow damage but seed yield may be reduced. By Lloyd Phillips. The female has a sex pheromone to attract males. Resembles rice weevil, only bigger and the red-brown spots on wing covers are more clearly marked. It is a stronger flier than the rice weevil. The combined action of natural enemies (including predators of eggs, larvae and pupae, parasites of eggs and larvae, and caterpillar diseases) can have a significant impact. Use of press wheels at planting provides some control. Knowledge of common maize crop pests can help smallholder farmers in early identification and control. Very little research has been done on the development of affordable organic pesticides which offer same control levels as synthetics to weevils. Carbon dioxide at concentrations of 50 and 60%, respectively, killed all life stages of the weevil after 10 days of exposure. In-furrow spraying helps protect young roots and shoots. Minor pests occur irregularly and will not be a problem every season. Stem/stalk borers Stem/stalk … MAIZE WEEVIL BIOLOGY ^ weevil feeding corn seed Storage period 6 weeks - 3 months 3 months - 9 months Insecticide1 Black field earwig is a sporadic and potentially major pest of maize, black earwigs eat newly sown and germinating seed and the roots of crops resulting in poor establishment. Control. Green vegetable bugs (GVB) are widespread but irregular pests of maize during summer. Grain baits containing insecticide applied at sowing offer best protection. Description. Maize can be attacked by a wide range of insects. Helicoverpa are usually not considered economical to control, except in high value seed maize. Chemical control should target small caterpillars (up to 5 mm) and be directed at tassels and emerging silks. The rice weevil has fully developed wings beneath its wing covers and can fly readily. The life-cycles of the Rice and Maize weevils follow a similar course to that of the Grain weevil. High numbers can cause plants to turn yellow and appear unthrifty. Adults and nymphs pierce and suck on lower leaf surfaces, causing yellowing on the upper leaf surfaces. Found throughout the world, Maize Weevils are a pest which can be controlled like many other pantry pests. For more information, visit the NPV page . Emulsion concentrate can also be used such as Actellic EC. As a guide, control is warranted if out of a count of 30 plants, 27 are infested, and more than 21 have at least 75% flag leaf loss. The predominant control of this pest is the use of synthetic residual pesticides, which have adverse effects on consumers and environment. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), known in the United States as the greater rice weevil, is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae.It can be found in numerous tropical areas around the world, and in the United States, and is a major pest of maize. Cutworms are attacked by a range of natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and diseases. Redbanded shield bug is a widespread but minor summer/autumn pest that can be confused with green vegetable bug. Rice and Maize Weevils are widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas and will be carried to temperate areas on imported commodities. Viral and fungal diseases are recorded as causing mortality of armyworms. October 25, 2017 at 1:02 pm Protecting stored grain from insect pests is essential for Africa’s future food security. Cereal grains include: barley, maize, millets, oats, rice, sorghum5, triticale, wheat. Treat seedlings when there is a rapidly increasing area of infestation or proportion of crop damage (>10% seedling loss). Both are able to develop on a wide range of cereals and also on processed cereal products. Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is the most important insect pest of stored maize in tropical regions. Maize leafhoppers are a pest of germinating maize. However, in temperate areas, post-harvest infestations are most common and originate from shipped-in grain or from already infested stored grains. Locusts are sporadic and potentially major pests of maize. There are no chemical controls available. Cutworms may be found in any soil type and often move into the crop from adjoining fence lines, pastures or weedy fallows. control of this pest is the use of synthetic residual pesticides, which have adverse effects on consumers and envi-ronment. along field edges) may be successful. Corn aphid is the most common aphid species on maize and can affect any crop stage. It is grey-brown with three pale longitudinal stripes on its thorax. Most common during late summer, they suck sap and high populations (>15/plant) can transmit wallaby ear mycoplasma. Seed treatments help deter feeding. Mites are usually present towards the end of the crop cycle during late summer/autumn and are favoured by hot, dry weather. Control of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryza L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with various formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae. Female moths lay eggs on the stem, leaves (both sides) tassels, silks and husks on the upper two-thirds of plants. Maize Weevil Control Since 2002 A-Tex Pest Management has been fully licensed and insured to provide commercial businesses and residential homes of the Greater Austin, Texas area with professional services and expertise in pest control at an affordable price. As larvae are most active at night, spraying in the afternoon or evening may produce the best results. Crop Protection 23: 103-108. Table 1. The … Signs of damage include chewed leaf margins and faecal pellets at the base of young plants or in the throats of older plants. Soil baiting may reduce damage by black field earwigs and crickets that attack the tips of developing prop-roots (secondary roots). Equipment: Grain handling equipment should be kept clean. Chapter 4: Effect of Storage Container Physical Disturbance on Maize Weevil Mortality. Yield loss may occur on water stressed plants. Here are some of common pests in maize fields: Stem/stalk borers. Whitefringed weevil larvae chew into lateral roots causing death and reduced vigour. Note that helicoverpa larvae may be confused with armyworms or cutworms. Use germinating seed baits or soil sampling to detect larvae prior to sowing. What to Control. In the light of the reorientation against synthetic insecticides, research that focuses on IPM that combines high varietal resistance and effective plant- or animal-derived insecticide is recommended for the control of maize weevil infestation in stored maize. Prepare ground for even and rapid germination. Dig and sieve soil to detect adults and nymphs prior to planting. Controlling of the pest by use of synthetic pesticides is raising serious concern on the environmental safety and consumer health hazards. The Maize Weevil is about 2.5 - 4 mm long. Monitor crops after planting until establishment. If grain is to be sold, use insecticides only if approved by your buyer. Use germinating seed baits and control if more than 50 earwigs in 20 germinating seed baits. Maize weevil is more likely than rice weevil to fly to a ripening crop in the field and establish an infestation in the grain before harvest. For general information about soil insects and germinating seed baits (GSB) see How to monitor for and recognise soil insects . Impact. Larvae tunnel into stems or cobs producing masses of webbing and excreta at the tunnel entrance. Pesticide Free Methods of Maize Weevil Control in Stored Maize for Developing Countries. Cutworm larvae feed on leaves and stems of young plants, and ´cut´ down plants to eat the leaves. For adults, use cracked grain baits. These powders caused high mortality rates on the immature stages of the pests and repelled the adult weevils. Hybrid varieties offer some resistance to wallaby ear. 09 Feb 2018, © The State of Queensland (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries) 2010–2020. Most develop from small numbers of pests already present in or around farm storage bins. Serious damage is usually confined to soils that retain moisture well, and earwigs prefer cultivated soils to undisturbed soil (zero till). Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, 27 November-3 December 1994., 91-95; [11 ref]. Spot treatments (e.g. The maize weevil is found in all warm and tropical parts of the world. Monitor during seedling and vegetative stages. Much of the maize produced in this sector is lost to weevil attack. Crop areas attacked by cutworms tend to be patchy and the highest risk period is during summer and spring. Adults may feed on leaves. This information is useful to personnel involved on agricultural research and development for developing location specific integrated pest management approach of this pest. Stored grain insect infestations rarely begin in the field. Damage is often patchy, and there are no effective controls, although a. Metarhiziumfungus and entomopathogenic nematodes have been reported to occasionally cause high larval mortality. The rice weevil is a small snout beetle which varies in size, but it averages about three thirty-seconds inch in length. Spray when caterpillars are feeding (dusk-night). Sitophilus zeamais (maize weevil) is a field and storage pest of maize of economic importance in several parts of Africa. No thresholds are available for mites in maize and control is not cost effective. Monitor crops after sowing until establishment. Uncontrolled they have been estimated to cost the country up to $280m per annum. Avoid sowing new ground with maize after pasture in areas that have a known history of white grubs. Maize crops often have high levels of beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids) that may be harmed by insecticide applications. Find the route of entry, discard infested food or belongings and treat with both residual insecticides and traps. Silk damage reduces pollination and grain-set. 20. Keep fallows clean and eliminate weeds from paddock perimeters for at least one month before planting. Maize leafhoppers and maize thrips are widespread but irregular in Queensland, and can rapidly re-infest crops after spraying meaning more than one spray may be required. Previous studies had confirmed effectiveness of ground powder derived from these plants in control of maize weevil in western Kenya (Ogendo et al., 2004a, Ogendo et al., 2004b). Armyworm larvae are attacked by a number of parasitoids that may assist in reducing the intensity of outbreaks, although are unlikely to give timely control if armyworm numbers are high. This enables us to improve your future experience on our website. Shallow planting in warm moist soil will encourage rapid crop emergence and growth, thus reducing the impact of insects. While these methods of pest control are equally essential, they have little in common with biological control or with each other outside the point that they may be integrated and used together (Ruberson et al., 1999). Wasp parasitoids mummify and kill aphids. Dayfeeding armyworm are active during the day. Bailey, CSIRO Publishing 2007. April 4, 2018. The effort involved in thorough preparation of storage bins is of little value if they are filled using contaminated equipment. It is a pest of stored maize, dried cassava, yam, common sorghum and wheat. Both insects are less coldhardy than the Grain weevil and will not normally overwinter in unheated premises or grain stored at normal temperatures. Attacks from Attacks from Sitophillus oryzae can start in the field, when the moisture content is about 20% (although Sitophilus zeamais is the From the last experiment, we found out that physical disturbance resulted in 81% weevil mortality. Fine webbing on the lower leaf surface indicates their presence, and heavy infestations will result in leaf desiccation, leaf drop and yield loss. Predators include green carab beetles, predatory shield bugs and perhaps common brown earwigs. Use press wheels at sowing. The main pests of maize are helicoverpa and a number of soil insects. These weevils are a major pest of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in developed pastures, maize and cereal crops. Insecticide seed dressings provide some protection. More detail on these pests can be found in Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control edited by P.T. Caterpillars hatching prior to silking cause little damage to tassels but may cause damage when migrating to cobs. They are similar in appearance to pink-spotted bollworm larvae. The weevil is considered a very destructive pest of stored grain, rice, maize, barley and wheat. Look for larvae under clods of soil, under vegetation and at the base of plants. Grain Weevil Print page . After harvesting, the grain needs to be dried to right moisture content of 12.5% (Wright, 1995) to avoid rotting in storage. Mass emergence of adults occurs after rain in November-January, and damage is often worse when two host crops (e.g. The head has a long slender snout. The habit of mining into stems and cobs makes spray application ineffective as larvae are not exposed to insecticide. Adults and hoppers chew irregular pieces from leaves and stems and can cause complete defoliation overnight if populations are high enough. These include pit fall traps, bait bags, insect probe traps and adhesive traps. One larva per sample warrants control. Assessment of infestations A variety of trapping techniques are available for measuring stored product beetle infestations. Pests. Control. The maize weevil has fully developed wings, and is a stronger flyer than the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and spreads more widely this way. The best product to use in an integrated pest management system is a naturally occurring nucleopolyhedovirus (NPV). Seed dressings, in-furrow sprays and granular insecticides offer some control. Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement - Bayer Environmental Science Australia, Australian Terms and Conditions of Purchasing. The use of phytochemicals for controlling storage pests constitutes an attractive alternative to synthetic products, … In-furrow sprays are not effective in protecting against dense populations. For chemical control and current registrations of these insects refer to Pest Genie or APVMA (Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medical Authority). During the day the common armyworm shelters in the throats of plants or in the soil and emerge after sunset to feed. True wireworm larvae may also feed on helicoverpa pupae. Mechanisms of resistance in maize grain to the maize weevil and the larger grain borer. IMPORTANCE AS A PEST: Grain weevils are important pests of farm-stored grain. Adults and nymphs feed by piercing and sucking on developing cobs, causing deformities, similar to green vegetable bug damage. Pesticide free methods of maize weevil control in stored maize for developing countries Denis Bbosa Iowa State University Follow this and additional works at:https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd Part of theAgriculture Commons, and theBioresource and Agricultural Engineering Commons This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and … Commonly, loss of weight is up to 5%, but severe infestations increase the losses up to 40%. Mycoplasma-infected plants are dark green colour with thickened veins on the underside of leaves. Maize varieties with husks extending 50-80 mm beyond the top of the cob and closing tightly around the silks restrict the entry of larvae into the cob. SA scientist’s maize weevil control breakthrough. Parallel rows of holes are signs of feeding on unopened leaves. False wireworm   larvae attack germinating seeds and seedling roots and shoots in spring, resulting in patchy stands. Feeding damage also occurs on the top 1-3 cm of the cob, and may result in the presence of mycotoxins. True wireworm larvae bore into germinating seed and chew on seedling roots and shoots resulting in reduced vigour, wilting or seedling death. To detect, either hand sift 10 soil samples (30 x 30 cm) or place 10 germinating seed baits throughout the paddock. Initial infestations can be patchy. Watering during dry weather prevents the husks from loosening. Last updated: The Australian Plague Locust Commission provides details of hopper migrations. Weed is one of the pests that reduce the yield of a maize farm. ... IA, USA: 2014. Many chemicals will control armyworms but their effectiveness is often dependent on good penetration and control may be more difficult in high-yielding thick canopy crops, particularly when larvae are resting under leaf litter at the base of plants. Cultivation to a dept of 100 mm destroys overwintering pupae. Rice and Maize weevils are widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas and will be carried to temperate areas on imported commodities. The Maize Weevil will breed on maize in the field. Press wheels can reduce damage from false wireworm larvae and earwigs by encouraging plant emergence and firming the soil to reduce insects´ ability to move through it. Severe damage to emerging crop can occur when large larvae are forced to move from weed hosts into the crop following spraying of the weeds. Weeds are unwanted crops that grow sporadically with the sown crop. The status of this new pest in maize-based farming systems in Africa, traditionally dependent upon cob storage as a modest pest management stratagem, has been such that pragmatic thresholds for control action are commonly exceeded (McFarlane, 1988a). Yellow peach moth is a minor and irregular pest of maize in Queensland. The maize weevil breeds on maize in the field but the Rice weevil only breeds in stored grain. One larvae/germinating seed bait warrants control. Adults and nymphs suck sap and produce honeydew. The only way to control these pests is fumigation. Both adults and larvaefeed on internally on maize grains and an infestation can start in the field (when the cob is still on the plant) but most damage occurs in storage. Inspect at weekly intervals. Including varied Carpet beetle, Furniture Carpet beetle,... We would like to use cookies to better understand your use of this website. Leaf beetles are an irregular pest of maize: Armyworms can occur in large numbers especially when good rain follows a dry period. There are a number of commercially formulated NPV products on the market for the control of helicoverpa. This is quite laudable; but maize farmers face lots of problems, chiefly pest. Damage is most common in early planted crops with low crop residue (e.g. The overall conclusion is that there are effective low-cost ways to control maize weevils by hermetic … Queensland Government, Fraud, corruption and misconduct control policy, Economic recovery—support for Queensland producers announced, Back to work in agriculture incentive scheme, Agriculture research, development and extension (RD&E), Enhancing biosecurity capability and capacity in Queensland, Biosecurity policy, legislation and regulation, Eradicating varroa mites – the sweetest success, Workplace health management plans: COVID-safe farms, AgTech: Where agriculture meets technology, Food pilot plant: Making food dreams come true, Please contact us with your compliment or complaint. Chemical control options are generally not cost effective and the insecticides that control aphids may negatively impact natural enemies. Egg lays are often associated with heavy rainfall so check for larvae several weeks after rainfall events. From the maize, maize-amaranth experiment, it was concluded that blending maize with amaranth during storage reduced maize weevil population growth by 46% compared to storing maize alone. Infestationsdtected after crop emergence cannot be controlled. Natural enemies provide little control. Note: predatory earwigs are usually larger and light brown in colour. Feeding on secondary roots may cause the plants to fall over as they get larger. Insecticide application rates to protect stored cereal grain, except malting barley. Young plants may be defoliated or killed. Two-spotted mite is a widespread but irregular pest of maize during seed fill to maturity. Whitegrub larvae (, spp., andPseudoheteronyx spp) feed on roots causing loss of vigour and lodging. Partial damage to stems may cause the plant to wilt. Maize Farming in Kenya-Pest Control. Maize Crop yields in many Kenyan farms have been reduced and destabilized by pests which also affect the quality of harvested produce. sanitary, cultural, botanical, biological and chemical control measures to manage weevil. Larvae typically shelter in the soil during the day and curl into a ´C´ shape when disturbed. An effective sanitation program can eliminate or greatly reduce the chance of having serious problems with these insects. Since it is an internal pest, residual control will only kill; Exposed adults. The use of phytochemicals for controlling storage pests constitutes an attractive alternative to synthetic products, since plant may be more biodegradable and safer. 2010. Santos et al (1999) described the use of a carbon dioxide controlled atmosphere in Brazil for the control of S. zeamais on maize and wheat. University of KwaZulu-Natal doctoral candidate, Mohamed Saeed, describes his successful tests with a widely known fungus to help achieve this. 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