The formation of the Petrobras oil company gave the Brazilian government a monopoly over the nation’s sizeable oil reserves. Allende stood several times for the Chilean presidency, coming close to victory in 1958. During the Cold War, the United States and its allies supported Cold War coups, attempted coups or insurgencies in a number of locations. Arevalo implemented a series of social reforms, dubbed “spiritual socialism”. Countries that endured Cold War-related regime change included Tibet (1950), Iraq (1958), Cuba (1960), Bolivia (1970), Uganda (1971), Argentina (1976), Pakistan (1977), Afghanistan (1978), Iran (1979), the Central African Republic (1979) and Turkey (1980). In addition, both the US and USSR were involved in civil wars in Malaya (1948-60), Laos (1953-1975), Cambodia (1967-75) Ethiopia (1974-91), Lebanon (1975-90) and El Salvador (1980-92). Proxy wars were first defined by the way they manifested during the era of the Cold War: indirect confrontation between superpowers via substitute actors. Later Brazilian governments, however, adopted a different course. These included promises of political recognition and backing, promises of financial aid (such as the Marshall Plan), bilateral and multilateral treaties, economic and trade agreements, and the provision of military training, weapons and equipment. In particular, the bombing campaign Operation Rolling Thunder destroyed significant amounts of infrastructure, making life more difficult for North Vietnamese citizens. The Iran-Contra affair, as it became known, scandalised the Reagan administration, though much of the blame was shouldered by Reagan’s subordinates. However, they fought each other indirectly through proxy wars. This was followed by decades of political turmoil and shifting governments. Cold War Proxy Conflicts - The South African Border War Throughout the Cold War a number of hot conflicts ocurred that served as places for both sides to engage each other with out direct conflict, effictivly wars by proxy , these generally came in a couple of varieties. Both states thus found any and all means short of direct confrontation to fight this global battle. On September 11th 1973, Chilean military officers backed by the CIA overthrew Allende. American CIA agents were particularly active in organising and funding anti-communist coups, such as Augusto Pinochet’s removal of Salvador Allende in Chile in September 1973. They did this by identifying enemies of the government or potential coup leaders then providing them with funds, weapons, intelligence and political backing. In early 1953, the CIA launched Operation Ajax, a campaign to discredit Mossadegh and force his dismissal by Iran’s reigning monarch, the Shah. These proxy wars on the African continent represent just a small sample of the global scale of the Cold War. During the Cold War the term proxy war was used and misused to such extend that all wars during this period was denominated as a proxy war. This is a list of proxy wars.Major powers have been highlighted in bold. They gave the Soviets and the West an excuse to confront each other without triggering a nuclear war. The Brazilians used this aid to industrialise and jump-start their underdeveloped economy. The continent’s most powerful and prosperous nation was South Africa, a former British colony that gained independence in 1910. Better to trigger civil wars in developing nations and support anti-communist “freedom fighters? Some of these Cold War coups and interventions are briefly outlined below. During this period the US government and American business interests wielded considerable influence over the country. The Angolan Civil War started as a civil war within Angola, then became a proxy war and then after the end of the cold war became just a civil war again. In November 1965, a CIA-backed coup d’etat brought General Joseph Mobutu to power in the Congo. The Dominican Republic is a small nation in the Caribbean. Structure Proxy Wars During The Cold War November 1955 - April 1975 SU USA supported anti-communists 1955 - 1975 Chinese Civil War Chilean Coup D'état Ethiopia War Korean War USA supported rebels with weapons and secret founding of CIA after many bombings and deaths: peace treaty Examples. The US landings in Grenada prompted outrage around the world. Instances such as the Greek civil war, Korean War, Cuban Revolution, Vietnam War, Bay of Pigs, Afghan Soviet war, Angolan Civil War, were all examples of such proxy wars between the Soviet and the American sides. Funding: Cold War was mainly funded by the government of the respective countries. During the Cold War, several democratically elected leaders were replaced with puppet governments, military juntas or dictators. One of the most infamous Cold War coup d’etats occurred in the South American nation of Chile. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson Correct Answer: Proxy wars were used by the United States and Soviet Union as a way to fight one another without resorting to actual war between the two nations. Over the decades of war … The Soviets tried to engineer the break-up of Iran, creating pro-Moscow republics and fomenting a civil war. Citation information By the late 1950s, international opposition to Trujillo’s regime was intense. However Korean War, creation of NATO and Warsaw Pact, Blockade of Berlin, massive government propaganda and the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty are the five best examples of Cold War fought between USA and the erstwhile USSR. Multiple proxy wars stood in for actual conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Shah of Iran remained a staunch Western ally in the Middle East, though he suffered growing unpopularity within his own country. 1. In October 1944, Ubico was overthrown by a coup led by disgruntled students and labourers. President Joao Goulart (1961-64) was a moderate leftist who implemented democratic reforms, increased spending on education and attempted to tax foreign companies trading in Brazil. A proxy war is … Neutral during World War II, Chile’s government later aligned with the United States, signing treaties for financial aid (1947) and military assistance (1952). Some of these Cold War coups and interventions are briefly outlined below. as the U.S. did in Guatemala in the 1950s or communist movements as the Soviet Union did in Angola in the 1970s. In the first months of Pinochet’s rule, more than 40,000 Chileans were arrested and as many as 5,000 either vanished or were murdered. Whether it was in Vietnam or Afghanistan, the United States and Soviet Union mismanagement of proxy wars destabilized the proxy countries for decades after the respective powers disengaged from the conflict. Voting rights were expanded and civil rights guaranteed; education and literacy programs were created; while laws were passed to protect the rights of workers. Throughout the more than 4 decades of the Cold War there were numerous proxy wars, some of which continue to this day and all of which have lasting repercussions. Guatemala is a small Central American nation, sandwiched between Mexico and Honduras. The Soviet and Cuban-backed People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) controlled most of Angola by 1980, forcing the withdrawal of American and South African troops. By late 1966, the country was in the hands of Joaquin Balaguer, a former ally of Trujillo’s. Brazil had fought with the Allies during World War II, receiving US military equipment and considerable financial aid. boots on the ground. In October 1983, hardline elements of the NJM, dissatisfied with the lack of socialist progress in Grenada, arrested and executed Bishop. With nowhere else to turn Lumumba went to the Soviet Union, a move which Joseph Kasa-Vubu believed was an act of treason and ordered Lumumba’s arrest. One of the most controversial US interventions of the Cold War occurred in Grenada. The proxy wars that I will reference are some of those that occurred after World War II and are considered a part of the Cold War. Incoming US president John F. Kennedy was unwilling to risk international embarrassment by maintaining support for the Dominican dictator. Proxy wars in Nicaragua and Angola. Despite its human rights breaches, Guatemala’s military junta continued to receiving backing and funds from American leaders, particularly Ronald Reagan. During the Cold War, the need to prevent such a full-scale war became extremely important due to the fear of mutually assured destruction. Proxy Wars during the Cold War. Nicaragua gained its independence from the Spanish in 1821. Iran is a Middle Eastern nation, located between Turkey, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Persian Gulf. Though he proclaimed a commitment to freedom and democracy, Trujillo was a murderous dictator who eliminated opposition wherever it emerged. Communist China became heavily involved in Africa in the 1960s, forging trade links, building large infrastructure projects and railways, and supplying arms and equipment to liberation movements across the continent. Mobutu would rule as a military dictator for more than three decades. Lumumba was executed, political riots occurred regularly with groups supporting different political parties and angry that their elected leader had been assassinated. The Shah was himself overthrown by an Islamist revolution in 1979 and control of the country passed to the Ayatollah Khomeini. Some governments and politicians could not be bought, however. The Congo Crisis began when Belgian Congo became independent. The Cold War provided a perfect environment for proxy wars. The Cold War also shaped the political development of African countries south of the Equator. Its first democratically elected prime minister, Patrice Lumumba, was an anti-colonialist who sought to reduce Western influence in his country. Better to trigger civil wars in developing nations and support anti-communist “freedom fighters? Proxy wars can have a huge impact, especially on the local area. In 1945 it had a population of around 11 million. The small Central American nation of Nicaragua lies between Honduras and Costa Rica. Ubico gave free rein to American companies in Guatemala, leading to low wages and the mistreatment of local workers. Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. Cold War Proxy Conflicts - The South African Border War Throughout the Cold War a number of hot conflicts ocurred that served as places for both sides to engage each other with out direct conflict, effictivly wars by proxy , these generally came in a couple of varieties. During the late 1940s, the United States offered support and inducements to shape the political future of smaller nations. When Allende was elected president in 1970, CIA agents began bribing Chilean politicians and agitating for a military coup. Why did the United States and USSR engage in proxy wars during the Cold War? Balaguer ruled for much of the next three decades, employing similar tactics to Trujillo and receiving support and aid from Washington. From 1948, South Africa was governed by the Nationalists, a white minority party committed to a program of racial segregation it called apartheid. Fearing Grenada would become a pawn of Moscow and Havana, and a possible refuelling stop for Cuban planes carrying mercenaries to central America, Ronald Reagan decided to act. Latin America Nicaragua war Ruled by military dictatorship Sandinistas (Marxist) seized power to remove dictatorship Reagan authorized CIA to organize, and train army (known as Contras) to seize power from Sandinistas Guerilla war against Sandinista government Latin America Soviet forces did not withdraw until mid-1946, under pressure from the US. Therefore, proxy wars became an extremely efficient method of indirect fighting between the Soviets and the Americans during the Cold War. the independent countries that remained neutral in the Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union Proxy Wars During the Cold War, local or regional wars in which the superpowers armed, trained, and financed the combatants - but did not directly attack the other superpower. The two nuclear-armed superpowers did not wish to exchange blows … To maintain order Lumumba went to the UN who did deploy troops but they would not intervene when two states succeeded from the Congo. On this surface, this legislation empowered the government to eliminate the threat posed by communism in South Africa. Like its neighbour Cuba, the Republic was strongly influenced by the United States. During the Cold War, the threat of mutually assured destruction drove major nuclear powers to achieve political ends through indirect means—as when the US fought Vietnamese forces that were heavily backed by China and Russia. A “cold” war—The US and the USSR never en-gaged in direct combat but competed for influence across the world, thus the “cold” war. The main battlegrounds of the Cold War were in … During the Cold War, U.S. leaders mounted proxy wars to mask U.S. involvement in various regions around the globe. Though often absent from retellings of the Cold War, the interventions and alliances conceived in Southern Africa between the 1960s and 1980s, had … The United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR) did not go to war with each other between 1945 and 1991. During the Cold War Washington sent American troops into Vietnam (1965-75), the Dominican Republic (1965), Lebanon (1982), Grenada (1983) and Panama (1989). Between 1982 and 1984 the CIA handed more than $US50 million to these counter-revolutionaries, known as the Contras. Arbenz was forced to resign and flee, leaving the government in the hands of military officers led by Castillo Armas. The United States tried to use proxy wars to contain communism, as they did in Guatemala by sponsoring a coup. In July 1979, Nicaragua was seized by the Sandinista Front, a socialist guerrilla movement inspired by Castro’s revolution in Cuba. Afghan Civil War (1989-’92), Korean War (1950–’53) & Vietnam War (1955-’75). In early 1964 the CIA began supporting anti-Goulart groups and promoting public unrest against his government. Unfortunately for most of the African nations swept up in these conflicts, their domestic issues were of secondary concern to the US and USSR. During the Cold War, what was the Soviet Union's main objective in engaging in proxy wars against the United States? Formerly a Belgian colony, the Congo became independent in June 1960. They were involved in his arrest, torture and execution in January 1961. Many Iranian nationalists remained friendly to Moscow and hostile to Britain and the US. For almost two centuries it had been a British colony. This Cold War site contains articles, perspectives and sources on global events and tensions between 1945 and 1991. Soviet troops breached this agreement, however, and remained ensconced in northern Iran after the war. Consistent US & Soviet involvement in various proxy-wars & conflicts globally — i.e. to spread communism _________________ describes the process of a country bringing an industry or sector under government control or ownership. In 1950, the Nationalist regime passed the Suppression of Communism Act. URL: https://alphahistory.com/coldwar/coups-proxy-wars/ His government was replaced by a repressive military dictatorship headed by General Augusto Pinochet. The Shah became Iran’s political ruler as well as its head of state. Meanwhile the U.S., seeing the involvement of the Soviet Union believed that the country was in the midst of a communist takeover. Where this failed, CIA agents were often tasked with bringing about what is today referred to as “regime change”. Britain responded by blocking purchases of Iranian oil, a move that triggered an economic and political crisis in Iran. of influence. Both superpowers funded ‘friendly’ political groups and movements, while funding, supplying or orchestrating coups d’etat to remove ‘unfriendly’ governments or leaders. as the U.S. did in Guatemala in the 1950s or communist movements as the Soviet Union did in Angola in the 1970s. Instead, both superpowers wielded global power and influence by manipulating smaller nations. The conflict lasted from 1975 until 2002 with only a few brief periods of peace and relative stability. Mozambique was also paralysed by a civil war (1977-92) where opposing forces were backed by Cold War protagonists. Instead of supporting Janssens’ attempts to maintain order and deploy Belgian troops, Lumumba promoted all the black men of the army and removed Janssens. In 1953 the CIA began training and supplying Guatemalan exiles. Funding of Proxy War partly comes from the warring countries and a major part comes from illegal activities. The Democratic Republic of Congo is a Central African nation. During the late 1940s and 1950s, Brazil remained a staunch ally of the US, banning communist parties and signing a military treaty with Washington (1952). During the Cold War Washington sent American troops into Vietnam (1965-75), the Dominican Republic (1965), Lebanon (1982), Grenada (1983) and Panama (1989). British and Soviet forces invaded Iran during World War II, promising to restore its sovereignty and independence later. The Pinochet regime was supported by the US until 1976 when its human rights abuses were exposed to the world. Soviet political interference in eastern European nations was a contributing factor to the Cold War and the formation of an Iron Curtain separating Eastern and Western Europe. Guatemala was governed by military juntas for the remainder of the Cold War. Under the Reagan Doctrine, the CIA was ordered to organise, train and arm a counter-revolutionary force to seize power in Nicaragua. The goal of the United States was to stop the spread of communism while the Soviet Union wanted to spread communism in order to increase their own sphere of influence. Reagan gave this order without the approval or knowledge of British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, despite Grenada being a British Commonwealth nation. Proxy wars are not a new phenomenon. The election of Jimmy Carter in 1976 triggered a shift in US policy and the withdrawal of support for the Somoza dynasty. Where political leaders were determined to adopt socialist or nationalist policies, the US adopted punitive measures, such as trade embargoes or the suspension of aid. They decided to support Mobutu in a coup attempt. The Cold War was when proxy wars became the most in vogue they have ever been. 5. During his short time in power, Allende initiated land reform projects, authorised the lifting of wages and increased spending on healthcare and education. When the US Congress refused further payments to the Contras, Reagan’s administration raised funds by selling arms to Iran – despite the latter being in the hands of Islamic fundamentalists. The goal of the United States was to stop the spread of communism while the Soviet Union wanted to spread communism in order to increase their own sphere of influence. Days after the October 1983 coup Reagan ordered more than 7,000 US troops into Grenada, under the pretext of protecting US citizens and other civilians. Cold War: Cold War was fought between USA and the erstwhile USSR and both indulged in a number of proxy wars as parts of the long spell of the Cold War. It was updated on November 28th 2020. Proxy Wars During the Cold War - Chapter Summary. These coups, proxy wars and foreign meddling often had devastating effects for the locals, bringing to power leaders who were undemocratic, dictatorial, brutal and corrupt. This culminated in Mossadegh’s overthrowing in an August 1953 coup d’etat. A proxy war with significant effects occurred between the United States and the USSR during the Vietnam War. There have been many proxy wars in history, especially during the cold war. Patrice Lumumba of the Mouvement National Congolas was elected Prime Minister and then Parliament chose Joseph Kasa-Vubu of the rival party Alliance des Bakongo as President. In May 1961, Trujillo was assassinated by rebels in receipt of some CIA support. This is the story of some of the proxy wars that took place during the Cold War. In the past, proxy wars have been fought through the use of third parties in order to prevent a full-scale war. These American agents were seldom directly involved in coups or assassinations but they certainly contributed to their success. The Cold War was when proxy wars became the most in vogue they have ever been. The two nuclear-armed superpowers did not wish to exchange blows … During the Cold War, the USSR and the U.S. met on many battlefields by supporting opposing sides in many conflicts. Letting stand-ins fight was, ironically, the safest way to wage hot wars during the period of the Cold War. Publisher: Alpha History The Cold War increasingly took place in proxy wars, the Space Race, the Olympics, and propaganda. These communications were watched by US agents, however, and Washington became concerned about the Congo’s large deposits of copper and uranium falling into Soviet hands. US forces withdrew in December 1983 after removing the NJM from power and installing a pro-American government. The Cold War The Cold War was a period of heightened tension between the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, and the capitalist They invaded the country in June 1954, backed by US air support. A tiny island nation north of Trinidad and Venezuela, Grenada had a population fewer than 100,000 people. Most concerning to Washington was Allende’s plan to nationalise Chilean industries, including several American-owned copper mines. The superpowers were also involved in so-called “proxy wars” – conflicts where they supplied and supported one side, without American or Soviet troops being directly involved. However, the black members of the army mutinied when the white commander Emile Janssens told them that nothing would change. Belgian military officers and CIA operatives began working together to unseat Lumumba. Between 1931 and October 1944, Guatemala was ruled by Jorge Ubico, a dictatorial leader with pro-American leanings. Whether it was in Vietnam or Afghanistan, the United States and Soviet Union mismanagement of proxy wars destabilized the proxy countries for decades after the respective powers disengaged from the conflict. On June 25 th, 1950 with the support of the Soviet Union and China, North Korea invaded South Korea with the goal of uniting the country. of influence. Between 1930 and 1961, the Dominican Republic was ruled by US-backed strongman Rafael Trujillo. 4. Correct Answer: Proxy wars were used by the United States and Soviet Union as a way to fight one another without resorting to actual war between the two nations. The Cold War provided a perfect environment for proxy wars. Fearing that Mossadegh might align with the Soviet Union, the US and Britain began plotting his removal. The US and USSR did not go to war between 1945 and 1991, however, both superpowers used their assets and agencies to influence the political development of smaller countries. Iran (1953) Scenes from the Iranian coup of 1953 Firstly, the appeal of fighting an indirect war still rests on an intrinsic set of assumptions based on interest formation, ideological premises, and perceptions of risk. Take this quiz to test your knowledge of these conflicts. 2. The Cold War is now known for a number of proxy wars in which both the Soviet Union and the United States would support one side or the other in conflicts around the world. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. In 1951, Iran’s new prime minister, Mohammed Mossadegh, nationalised the country’s oil industry, which had been developed and owned by British interests. But proxy wars should not be seen as synonymous with the Cold War. The role of proxy wars are best known from the Cold War, when conflicts played out in the context of competing ideologies: communism and democracy. 3. Although the Soviet Union never really fought directly with the USA, its main enemy in the Cold War, both the USSR and the USA frequently sought to challenge each other through 'proxy wars'. The military governed Brazil for the next two decades, assisted by American political backing and financial aid. For more information, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. But just because the United States and the Soviet Union did not directly go to war on their own soil, that does not mean that the two sides never fought. They did this in many ways – through diplomacy, treaties and alliances, by providing aid or trade deals and by supplying arms, military equipment and training. He also opened diplomatic relations with communist nations, including Cuba, China and North Korea. When Belgium granted the Republic of the Congo independence in 1960 they hoped that the Belgians within the country would keep their positions and maintain some control. In 1964 the United States orchestrated a coup d’etat in Brazil, the largest nation in South America. The Cold War was when proxy wars became the most in vogue they have ever been. Both superpowers were also involved in numerous coups and proxy wars. 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